PICTURE OF CHURCH CATHOLIC CHURCH OF OUR LADY & ST PETER, LEATHERHEAD
 
THE SPIRIT OF CATHOLICISM: CONTEMPLATION & COMPASSION, COURTESY & COURAGE
Through Christ in the Spirit to the Father (Eph. 2:18)
'Act justly, love mercy, walk humbly with your God'.   Micah 6:8
Ever seeking a Grace-filled culture of love.
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This page contains the chants and prayers used in the Ordinary of the Mass both on the 1st Sunday of each month in Leatherhead and in the Thursday evening Mass, i.e.
[Kyrie eléison] [Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy)] [Pater Noster (Our Father)] [Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)]

This is followed by: [a Summary of Grammar]

Note:


KYRIE ELÉISON

The first thing to note here is that this is not Latin! It is Greek, written in Roman letters.

Kýrie, eléison.
Kýrie, eléison.
Christe, eléison.
Christe, eléison.
Kýrie, eléison.
Kýrie, eléison.
Lord, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.

As it is obvious which word means what, there is no need to give an interlinear translation; as for notes:

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SANCTUS SANCTUS SANCTUS (HOLY, HOLY, HOLY)

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dóminus Deus Sábaoth.
Pleni sunt cæli et terra glória tua.
Hosánna in excélsis
Benedíctus qui venit in nómine Dómini.
Hosánna in excélsis
Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts.
Heaven and earth are full of your glory.
Hosanna in the highest.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.

Interlinear

  1. Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dóminus Deus Sábaoth.
    Holy,    Holy,    Holy    Lord    God  Sabaoth.
     
  2. Pleni sunt cæli    et  terra glória     tua.
    Full  are  heavens and earth with-glory your.
     
  3. Hosánna in excélsis
    Hosanna in heights.
     
  4. Benedíctus qui venit in nómine Dómini.
    Blessed    who comes in name   of-Lord.
     
  5. Hosánna in excélsis
    Hosanna in heights.
     

Notes:

  1. "Sabaoth" is not a Latin word; it is a Hebrew word meaning "of armies" or "of hosts". Both Latin and Greek retained the Hebrew word, and it is sometimes used in English. It's exact meaning is unclear.
    It has been suggested that it was originally just "the Lord of armies", meaning that God was the god of the Hebrew armies. But this is not found in the Pentatech, nor in the books of Joshua and Judges, where we might have expected it.
    It comes in books written later and seems to mean "Lord of the heavenly hosts." Scholars,however, are divided as to whether it refers to the angelic hosts or to hosts of stars and galaxies, i.e. the Universe. Possibly it means both.
    1. cæli is the plural of cælus = 'sky, heaven'.
    2. glória is in a form called the 'ablative' which, among other things, can correspond to the meaning 'with'; Latin words often change their endings to show modified meaning.
    3. You will notice that tua comes after the noun glória; in English, words that qualify nouns (i.e. adjectives) nearly always come in front of nouns; in Latin they may precede or follow their nouns, but the more common position is after the noun.
  2. excélsis is the ablative plural of excéslum = 'a height, the height.' This form is required after the word in.
    Latin, in common with many other languages, e.g. Russian and Chinese, has no word for "the", "a" or "an" (articles). We have to use common sense when translating. Here a more literal translation of the Latin would be: 'Hosanna in the heights.'
    1. The verb "to be" is not infrequently omitted in simple sentences; it is 'understood' between Benedíctus and qui - "Blessed [is he] who… "
    2. nómine is the ablative of nómen = 'name'.
    3. Dómini is the genitive form of Dóminus; the genitive usually corresponds to English 'of' or the possessive, e.g. Lord's.
    4. Notice again the lack of "the" in Latin, i.e. in the name of the Lord.
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PATER NOSTER (OUR FATHER)

The "Lord's Prayer" part of the Mass is rather more complicated than the others we consider on this page. It comes in four parts:

  1. An invitation by the priest ("At the Saviour's command…");
  2. The Lord's prayer proper, said or sung by priest and the faithful together;
  3. The embolism ("Deliver us, Lord, we pray … the coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ") said or chanted by the priest alone;
  4. The doxology said or sung by priest and the faithful together.

Below we give just the parts said or sung by the faithful, i.e. the prayer and its doxology.
 

Pater noster, qui es in cælis,
sanctificétur nomen tuum;
advéniat regnum tuum;
fiat volúntas tua,
  sicut in cælo, et in terra.
Panem nostrum quotidiánum da nobis hódie;
et dimítte nobis débita nostra,
sicut et nos dimíttimus debitóribus nostris;
et ne nos indúcas in tentatiónem,
sed líbera nos a malo.
[Libera nos, quǽsumus…
… advéntum Salvatóris nostri Jesu Christ.]

Quia tuum est regnum,
et potéstas, et glória
in sǽcula.
Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be Thy name;
Thy kingdom come;
Thy will be done
   on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us;
and lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
[Deliver us… we-pray,…
… the coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ.]

For the kingdom,
the power and the glory are yours
now and for ever.

Interlinear

  1. Pater  noster, qui es  in cælis,
    Father our,    who are in heavens,
     
  2. sanctificétur     nomen tuum;
    let-be-sanctified name  your;
     
  3. advéniat   regnum  tuum;
    let-arrive kingdom your;
     
  4. fiat       volúntas tua,
    let-happen will     your,
     
  5. sicut   in cælo,   et   in terra.
    just-as in heaven, also on earth.
     
  6. Panem nostrum quotidiánum da   nobis hódie;
    Bread our     daily       give to-us today;
     
  7. et  dimítte nobis débita nostra,
    and forgive to-us debts our,
     
  8. sicut   et   nos dimíttimus debitóribus nostris;
    just-as also we  forgive    to-debtors  our
     
  9. et  ne  nos indúcas      in   tentatiónem,
    and not us  let-you-lead into temptation,
     
  10. sed líbera nos a    malo.
    but free   us  from evil[-one].
     
  11. Quia tuum  est regnum,
    For  yours is  kingdom,
     
  12. et  potéstas, et  glória
    and power,    and glory
     
  13. in   sǽcula.
    into ages.

Notes:

    1. We notice again that the word for 'our' comes after the word for 'Father'.
    2. es = 'you are.' In English a more literal translation would be: 'Our Father, you who are in the heavens.'
    3. cælis is the ablative plural after the word in.
    1. Here with sanctificétur and with advéniat and fiat in the following two lines, we meet a form of the verb which corresponds to English forms like: "Let it rain!", "Let her go!", "Let them stay!" (for those like grammatical terms, in Latin this the 3rd person singular of the present subjunctive).
    2. You will notice that while advéniat and fiat just end in -t, sanctificétur ends in -tur, this is because it what is called passive; compare:(active) sanctíficet = "Let him/her sanctify [something]" and (passive) sanctificétur = "Let it be sanctified."
    3. Above in the Sanctus we found tua = 'your'; here we have tuum. Those who have learnt French will recall that nouns may be masculine or feminine and that words like 'your' (ton, ta, tes) have to agree with the noun. So in Latin, except that Latin also has neuter. We have glória tua because glória is feminine; here we have nomen tuum because nomen is neuter.
  1. In the Sanctus we had venit = "he/she/it comes"; so "let him/her/it come" is véniat. The prefix ad- of advéniat is the word for 'to, at', and thus ádvenit = "he/she/it arrives" and advéniat = "let him/her/it arrive." Thus also Advent is the season when we prepare for the arrival of our Lord, not just his coming.
  2. fiat does not mean "let it happen" in the sense of happening by chance, but rather "let it come to pass" or "let it come into being." Other instances of this word in the Latin Bible are in Genesis 1:3 where God calls light into being with "Fiat lux" (Let there be light) and in Luke 1:30 where Mary answers Gabriel with "fiat mihi secúndum verbum tuum" (let be it done to me according to your word).
    1. cælo is the ablative of cælus = 'heaven.'
    2. We have already seen et with the meaning of 'and' it may also be used in Latin to mean 'also.'
    1. Panem is the accusative form of panis, a masculine noun meaning 'bread'; the accusative shows that it is the object of da = 'give.' In English we show this by putting the word after 'give'; in Latin word order is much freer than in English and Latin prefers to show have words relate to one another by modifying their endings.
    2. Both nostrum and quotidiánum follow panem and have accusative masculine endings to show that they are qualify 'bread' - it is 'our daily bread.'
    3. nobis is the dative form of nos = 'we, us', which we see in lines 8, 9 and 10. The dative is frequently used with 'to give' and similar verbs, e.g. "give us bread" or "give bread to us" = da nobis panem.
    1. In Latin you forgive something to a person; or, to express it more grammatically, what you forgive is accusative (debita 'debts') and the person you forgive is dative (nobis 'us').
    2. The Latin version of the Lord's prayer keeps the word debita (debts) from Matthew, chapter 6, verse 12. Some versions, e.g. the normal English version, substitute 'trespasses' (peccata) from verse 14: "For if you forgive people their trespasses, your heavenly Father will forgive you also your trespasses." These version accordingly amend the wording of the following line also.
    1. The ending -mus shows 'we', hence: dimíttimus = 'we forgive.'
    2. debitóribus is dative plural of débitor = 'debtor'; it is dative because they are people we forgive (see 7 above).
    1. The usual Latin word for "not" is non; but the form ne is often used if the verb is subjunctive (see b below).
    2. We have seen that in lines 2, 3 & 4 we had present subjunctives showing an order: sanctificétur 'let [it] be sanctified'; advéniat 'let [it] arrive'; fiat 'let it happen'. So here we have present subjunctive with the 'you' form (2nd person singular); compare indúcis = 'you lead', and indúcas = 'let you lead/ do you lead'. Thus ne … indúcas = 'let you not lead' i.e. don't lead.
    3. So far we have met in with the meaning of 'in' or 'on'; with this meaning it is always followed by a word in the ablative form; if it is followed by a word in the accusative, as it is here, it has the meaning of 'into' or 'onto.'
    4. tentatiónem is the accusative of tentatió = 'temptation.'
    1. líbera is the imperative ('command form') of the verb liberáre = "to free, to set free, to release from slavery."
    2. malo is the ablative either of malum = 'evil', or of malus = 'evil person.' So it may be either a petition to keep us free from evil generally, or release us from slavery to the Evil One (i.e. Satan).
  3. tuum: Latin uses the same word for both 'your' and 'yours.'
  4. No comment needed for this line.
  5. sǽcula is the accusative plural of sǽculum = 'age, era, epoch' (an indefinitely long period); in ecclesiastical Latin in sǽcula and the longer form in sǽcula sæculórum (into ages of-ages) are frequently used to mean "into all ages without end", i.e. to all eternity.
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AGNUS DEI (LAMB OF GOD)

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccáta mundi,
miserére nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccáta mundi,
miserére nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccáta mundi,
dona nobis pacem.
Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world,
have mercy on us.
amb of God, you take away the sins of the world,
have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world,
grant us peace.

Interlinear

  1. Agnus Dei,    qui tollis        peccáta mundi,
    Lamb  of-God, who you-take-away sins    of-world,
     
  2. miserére  nobis.
    show-pity to-us
     
  3. Agnus Dei,    qui tollis        peccáta mundi,
    Lamb  of-God, who you-take-away sins    of-world,
     
  4. miserére  nobis.
    show-pity to-us
     
  5. Agnus Dei,    qui tollis        peccáta mundi,
    Lamb  of-God, who you-take-away sins    of-world,
     
  6. dona  nobis pacem.
    grant to-us peace.

Notes:

    1. Dei is the genitive ('of') form of Deus = 'God."
    2. tollis is the 'you' form (2nd person singular) of tollere = 'to take away'; a more literal translation who be: Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, But the combination 'you who' is avoided in English; the translators of the Mass simply dropped 'who' (qui).
    3. peccáta is the accusative plural of peccátum 'sin'. (For 'accusative', see 6a of the Pater Noster notes above, or see the summary of grammar below.)
    4. mundi is the genitive form of mundus = 'world.'
    1. miserére is the imperative (i.e. command) form of the verb miseréri = 'to show pity, to have mercy.' It is glossed above as "show pity", as this fits better with the dative (see below) in English; but "have marcy on us" is a fair translation of this line.
    2. nobis is the 'to' (dative) form of nos = 'we, us'; see 6c of the Pater Noster notes above, or see the summary of grammar below.
  1. See 1 above.
  2. See 2 above.
  3. See 1 above.
    1. dona is the imperative of donáre = 'to give [as a present], to bestow, to grant.'
    2. pacem is the accusative of pax = 'peace'. The accusative marks what is granted, and the dative (nobis) marks the person(s) to whom it is granted.
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SUMMARY OF GRAMMAR

ARTICLES
Latin has no no word for "the" (definite article), nor any word for "a" or "an" (indefinite article). We have to use common sense and add the appropriate words when they are needed in English.
 
NOUNS
Consider the sentence "the cat chases the mouse"; in Latin this is "feles fugat murem." Now if we change the sentence around in English, i.e. "the mouse chases the cat," it changes the meaning: the mouse has acquired unwonted confidence and the cat is showing unnatural timidity! But if we turn the Latin around, i.e. "murem fugat feles," it still means that the cat is chasing the mouse! Indeed, in whatever of the possible six arrangements we put the words "feles", "fugat" and "murem" the sentence keeps the same meaning. Why?

In English we rely on a fairly restrictive word order; the one doing the chasing, the subject, must be placed before the verb "chases" and the one who gets chased, the object, must be placed after the verb. So if we swap the cat and mouse around, we change the meaning.

Latin prefers to allow a fairly free word order and to mark subject and object by using different word endings. So as long as we have "feles", the cat is doing the chasing, wherever put the word in the sentence; likewise, as long as we have "murem", the mouse is getting chased, wherever we put the word in the sentence. If we want to turn the tables and have the mouse chasing the cat we must change these two words, thus: "mus fugat felem", "mus felem fugat" or "fugat felem mus" &c.

The forms "feles" and "mus", which we used for the subject, are the dictionary forms and known as the nominative; the forms "felem" and "murem" are known as the accusative. The technical term for the different forms of the noun is case; so grammarians say that "feles" and "mus" are in the nominative case, while "felem" and "murem" are in the accusative case.

We have in the passages above met all five cases of the Latin noun (there are the remains of two other cases found with some nouns, but they do not concern us here). So let us consider the remaining three.

We found the dative case in association with 'verbs of giving' (Indeed, the word 'dative' is derived from the Latin dare = 'to give'). such verbs usually have two objects in English, e.g. "The Lord gives us bread." But we can rephrase this as: "the Lord gives bread to us." So we see that "bread" must always stay as an object: this is called a 'direct object' and is accusative case in Latin. On the other hand, we may have "us" or "to us" in English, depending how we word the sentence: this is called an 'indirect object' and is in the dative case in Latin. Thus "The Lord gives us bread" is:

Dóminus    nobis  panem      dat  
nominative dative accusative verb 
The-Lord   to-us  bread      gives

(The four Latin words in this sentence can be arranged in 24 different ways; the sense will always be the same.)

The genitive case corresponds largely to English possessive forms which we can express with 'of' or the 'apostrophe-s', e.g.
nomen Dómini = "the name of the Lord" or "the Lord's name."
glória Dei = "the glory of God" or "God's glory."

In the Sanctus we saw an example of the ablative case with the meaning of with in the sense of showing what somwthing is filled with, i.e. pleni sunt cæli … glória = "full are the heavens … with glory." Another well known example of this is the opening of the Hail Mary:

Ave,  María, grátia     plena
Hail, Mary,  with-grace full 

Mostly, however, we met ablative nouns after in "in", and once after a "from". These little words are called prepositions and we will say a little more about them in another section below.

We also saw that Latin nouns, like those of most European languages, had grammatical gender. In Latin, like modern German and Russian, had three such genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. The table below gives the singular forms of some of the nouns considered above.

 MasculineFeminineNeuter
Godheavenfatherbreadglory earthpeacetemptationkingdomname
nominativeDeuscæluspaterpanisglória terrapaxtentátioregnumnomen
accusativeDeumcælumpatrempanemglóriam terrampacemtentatiónem
genitiveDeicælipatrispanisglóriæ terræpacistentatiónisregninóminis
dativeDeocælopatripaniglóriæ terræpacitentatióniregnonómini
ablativeDeocælopatrepaneglória terrapacetentatióneregnonómine

You will probably notice certain patterns. In particular, note that:

  • The accusative singular of masculine and feminine nouns end in -m;
  • Neuter nouns are similar to masculine one, but they do not distinguish the nominative and accusative cases.

We also met a few plural forms, namely:

cælus "heaven"cæli [nominative plural], cælis [ablative plural]
excélsum "height, high place"excélsis [ablative plural]
débitor "debtor"debitóribus [dative plural]
débitum "debt"débita [nominative & accusative plural]
sǽculum "age, epoch, era"sǽcula [nominative & accusative plural]
peccátum "sin"peccáta [nominative & accusative plural]

The nominative and accusative plural of all neuter nouns end in -a in Latin.

Finally, although this is a pronoun rather than a noun, we have come across the various form of "we, us", namely:

  • nos [nominative & accusative]
  • nobis [dative & ablative]
  • Instead of the genitive to show possession, we use the possessive adjective "our":
    noster [masc.], nostra [fem.], nostrum [neut.]
ADJECTIVES
We see from last bullet point above and from note 2c of the Pater Noster that adjectives in Latin, as in many modern European languages, change to 'agree' with the nouns they qualify. Adjectives in Latin, as in, for example, modern German and Russian (and, indeed, in Esperanto), change not only to have the same grammatical gender as the noun but also to have the same case.

We will not, however, go into further details here, but merely list the examples that occurred in the passages above. The first occurs in the Sanctus, all the others occur in the Pater Noster:

glória tua ="with your glory"[feminine ablative singular]
nomen tuum ="your name"[neuter nominative singular]
regnum tuum ="your kingdom"[neuter nominative singular]
volúntas tua ="your will"[feminine nominative singular]
panem nostrum ="our bread"[masculine accusative singular]
débita nostra ="our debts"[neuter accusative plural]
debitóribus nostris ="(to) our debtors"[masculine dative singular]
 
PREPOSITIONS
We have met two prepositions in the passages above. The most common of these was in followed by the ablative case:
in excélsis = "in the heights"in nómine = "in the name" 
in cælis = "in the heavens"in cælo = "in heaven" in terra = "on earth"

We had one instance of in followed by the accusative case with the meaning of "into", namely:
in tentatiónem = "into temptation"

We also had once instance of a with the ablative case, namely: a malo = "from evil" or "from the evil one"

This might give the wrong impression, especially to any who know how prepositions behave in German. The ones that may be followed by either ablative or accusative, where the accusative denotes motion, are unusual in Latin; there are only four. of which in is the most common.

Most prepositions are followed by only one case, more often than not it is the accusative, whether they show motion or not. For example, we shall find that the preposition ad, which we met as a prefix in the verb adveníre "to arrive", is always followed by the accusative, whether it means "to, toward(s)" or just "at, near."
 

VERBS
If you have ever learnt another language, you will know that verbs are usually the most complicated part. Latin verbs may be rather more regular than those of many languages; but they, nevertheless, have a great derived forms. We will not try to explain the Latin verb system here, but merely summarize, with a little more detail, the forms we met in the passages above.

Present indicative
i.e. the 'ordinary' present. We met three such verbs:
     venit = "[he/she/it] comes"; dimíttimus = "we forgive"; tollis = "you take away."
Notice the endings:

  • -s     known as the 2nd person singular and shows that the subject is "you" (speaking or writing to one person);
  • -t     known as the 3rd person singular and shows that the subject is "he", "she", "it" or a singular noun;
  • -mus known as the 1st person plural and shows that the subject is "we".

These endings will be found with other tenses of the verb also.

Present subjunctive
We found examples of this used with the meaning of "let…", namely:

  • advéniat = "let [him/her/it] arrive" (cf. indicative: ádvenit = "[him/her/it] arrives");
  • fiat = "let [it] come to pass" (cf. indicative: fit = "[it] comes to pass").

We had the passive:

  • sanctificétur = "let [it] be sanctified/ hallowed" (cf. indicative: sanctificátur = "[it] is sanctified/ hallowed").

Also we found this used in the 2nd person singular to express a negative command:

  • ne … indúcas = "Do not lead … [into]" (cf. indicative: non … indúcis = You do not lead … [into]").

Imperative
i.e. positive orders or commands. As in many languages, the singular form is the basic stem of the verb itself. In the poassages above, we had:
     da = "give"; dimmítte = "forgive"; líbera = "set free"; dona = "grant."
We also had miserére = "have/show mercy." This looks similar; this verb, however, is a little odd. The imperative is not the basic stem, but we will not say more about it here.

To be
We know from English and you may also know from other languages that the verb "to be" has a tendency to be irregular. This is so in Latin as well. In the passages above we came across present indicative across forms;

  • es    (2nd person siongular) = "you are" (thou art)
  • est   (3rd person singular) = "[he, she, it] is"
  • sunt (3rd person plural) = "[they] are"
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