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THE SPIRIT OF CATHOLICISM: CONTEMPLATION & COMPASSION, COURTESY & COURAGE
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This page contains the chants and prayers used in the Ordinary of the Mass which are said or sung on the Thursday evening Mass at Leatherhead and have not been explained in 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' or 'Ordinary of the Mass 2', i.e.

[Greeting] [Penitential Act] [Liturgy of Eucharist: Preparatory Prayers]
[The Eucharistic Prayer: opening Dialogue] [The Eucharistic Prayer: Acclamation]
[The Peace] [Invitation to Communion] [The Concluding Rites]

Note:
Rubrics are written in red.
Reminder:
Grammatical notes, just like the 'Summary of Grammar' page itself, are given for those who want to go deeper into the language; the notes assume you have read through 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' and will know terms such as nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, subjunctive etc. (but they do not assume any knowledge of 'Ordinary of the Mass 2').
You may, however, be content just with the interlinear translations.

GREETING

After the Entry Antiphon, the Priest and people sign themselves with the sign of the cross:
Priest: In nómine Patris, et Fílii, et Spíritus Sancti. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.
Response: Amen. Amen.
The priest then greets the people with one of the following:
Priest: Grátia Dómini nostri Jesu Christi,
et cáritas Dei,
et communicátio Sancti Spíritus
sit cum ómnibus vobis.
The grace of our Lord jesus Christ.
the love of God,
and the communion of the Holy Spirit,
be with you all.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.
or:
Priest: Grátia vobis et pax a Deo Patre nostro
et Dómino Jesu Christo.
Grace to you and peace from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.
or:
Priest: Dóminus vobíscum. The Lord be with you.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.

Interlinear

  1. In nómine Patris,    et  Fílii,  et  Spíritus  Sancti.
    In name   of-Father, and of-Son, and of-Spirit Holy.
     
  2. Amen.
    Amen.
     
  3. Grátia Dómini  nostri Jesu  Christi,
    Grace  of-Lord our    Jesus Christ,
     
  4. et  cáritas Dei,
    and love    of-God,
     
  5. et  communicátio Sancti  Spíritus
    and communion    of-Holy Spirit
     
  6. sit    cum  ómnibus vobis.
    let-be with all     you.
     
  7. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.
     
  8. Grátia vobis  et  pax   a    Deo Patre  nostro
    Grace  to-you and peace from God Father our
     
  9. et  Dómino      Jesu  Christo.
    and [from-]Lord Jesus Christ.
     
  10. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.
     
  11. Dóminus vobíscum.
    Lord    you -with.
     
  12. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.

Notes:

  1. We came across in nómine in the Sanctus on the 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' page; Patris is the genitive ('of form') of Pater = "Father", Fílii is the genitive of Fílius = "Son", and Spíritus  Sancti is the genitive of Spíritus  Sanctus = "Spirit Holy."
  2. Amen is no more Latin than it is English. Like Sabaoth in the Sanctus, it is one of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church. We find it in the Old Testament used to indicate that the speaker adopts for his/her own what has already been said by another person; this is its use here and at the end of prayers. For further information about this word, see the article in the online Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. Grátia is nominative, and Dómini nostri Jesu Christi is the genitive of Dóminus noster Jesus Christus.
  4. Similarly cáritas is nominative, and Dei is the genitive of Deus.
    It is, perhaps, worth noting that caritas is used specifically of Christian love as described by St Paul in 1 Corinthians, chapter 13; it contrasts with amor which denotes physical love and even sexual attraction found among animals.
  5. Similarly also, communicátio is nominative and Sancti Spíritus is the genitive of Sanctus Spíritus.
    The Latin communicátio translates the Greek κοινωνία (koinōnía), which older (and some modern) English translations rendered as "fellowship." The Greek word, however, denotes "partnership", "joint-ownership", "sharing of something in common", and the Latin word has much the same meaning. It is not merely a chummy fellowship with the Holy Spirit, but actually partaking in the life of the Spirit that is meant here.
  6. sit is the subjunctive of "to be", hence it means "let [it] be."; ómnibus vobis is ablative plural after the preposition cum = "with."
    The whole of this first greeting is taken word for word from 2 Corinthians 13:13.
  7. spíritu tuo is the ablative of spíritus tuus, following the preposition cum.
    This response, which is used in other parts of the Mass as well, is based on 2 Timothy 4:18 where Paul writes to Timothy: Dominus Jesus Christus cum spíritu tuo "The Lord Jesus [be] with your spirit."
    St Paul is acknowledging the Spirit's activity in and through Timothy in his role as bishop of Ephesus and praying that the Lord Jesus be with him also as he [Timothy] carries out his duties; similarly, whenever the faithful make this response during Mass, they are acknowledging the Spirit's activity in and through the priest during the sacred liturgy.
  8. Grátia and pax are both nominatives; vobis is dative and Deo Patre nostro is the ablative of Deus Pater noster after the preposition a.
  9. Dómino Jesu Christo is the ablative of Dóminus Jesus Christus as these words also follow the preposition a.
    This greeting clearly dates back to apostolic times and is found exactly word for word in both 1 Corinthians 1:3 and Philippians 1:2.
  10. See 7 above.
  11. Dóminus is nominative; vobíscum is the ablative vobis with cum suffixed to it, rather than coming before it as a preposition. In Latin this was normal with certain pronouns - see the Summary of grammar below.
    Also in short sentences the verb "to be" was not uncommonly omitted if the meaning was clear. Dóminus vobíscum can be understood as meaning either "The Lord is with you" or "The Lord be with you"; as a greeting, the latter is more likely.
    This greeting was even more ancient, going right back to Old Testament times. We find the singular form being said by Saul to David: Dóminus tecum "The Lord [be] with you" (1 Samuel 17:37) and the plural form said by Boaz to his harvesters: Dóminus vobíscum "The Lord [be] with you" (Ruth 2:4); it is found in other places in the Old Testament.
  12. See 7 above.

You will see from the italicized sentences above that the greetings with their response are based surely and firmly on Holy Scripture. Indeed, the whole of the Liturgy of the Mass is firmly grounded in Holy Scripture throughout.

[ad caput páginæ] [return to top]

PENITENTIAL ACT

The Penitential Act begins with an invitation to the faithful by the Priest:
Priest: Fratres, agnoscámus peccáta nostra,
ut apti sumus ad sacra mystéria celebránda.
Brethren, let us acknowledge our sins,
and so prepare ourselves to celebrate the sacred mysteries.
A brief pause for silence follows. Then one of the following three forms is used:
(At the Thursday evening Mass we normally use the first form; but the other two are given for the sake of completeness)
All: Confíteor Deo omnipoténti
et vobis, fratres,
quia peccávi nimis
cogitatióne, verbo,
ópere et omissióne:
mea culpa, mea culpa,
mea máxima culpa.
Ídeo precor beátam Maríam semper Vírginem,
omnes Ángelos et Sanctos,
et vos, fratres, oráre pro me
ad Dóminum Deum nostrum.
I confess to almighty God
and to you, my brothers and sisters,
that I have greatly sinned,
in my thoughts and in my words,
in what I have done and in what I have failed to do,
through my fault, through my fault,
through my most grievous fault;
therefore I ask blessed Mary ever-Virgin,
all the Angels and Saints,
and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me
to the Lord our God.
or:
Priest: Miserére nostri, Dómine, Have mercy on us, O Lord.
Response: Quia peccávimus tibi. For we have sinned against you.
Priest: Osténde nobis, Dómine, misericórdiam tuam. Show us, O Lord, your mercy.
Response: Et salutáre tuum da nobis. And grant us your salvation.
or:
Priest: Qui missus es sanáre contrítos corde:
Kýrie, eléison.
You were sent to heal the contrite of heart:
Lord, have mercy.
Response: Kýrie, eléison. Lord, have mercy.
Priest: Qui peccatóres vocáre venísti:
Christe, eléison.
You came to call sinners:
Christ, have mercy.
Response: Christe, eléison. Christ, have mercy.
Priest: Qui ad déxteram Patris sedes,
ad interpellándum pro nobis:
Kýrie, eléison.
You are seated at the right hand of the Father
to intercede for us:
Lord have mercy.
Response: Kýrie, eléison. Lord, have mercy.
The absolution by the Priest follows:
Priest: Misereátur nostri omnípotens Deus,
et, dimíssis peccátis nostris,
perdúcat nos ad vitam ætérnam.
May almighty God have mercy on us,
forgive us our sins,
and bring us to everlasting life.
Response: Amen. Amen.
The Kýire eléison invocations (see 'Ordinary of the Mass 1') follow, unless they have just occurred (i.e. the 3td penitential act was used).

Interlinear

  1. Fratres,  agnoscámus         peccáta rostra,
    Brethren, let-us-acknowledge sins    our
     
  2. ut      apti simus ad sacra  mystéria  celebránda.
    so-that fit  we-be to sacred mysteries being-celebrated.
     
  3. Confíteor Deo    omnipoténti
    I-confess to-God almighty
     
  4. et  vobis,  fratres,
    and to-you, brethren,
     
  5. quia peccávi       nimis
    that I-have-sinned excessively
     
  6. cogitatióne, verbo,
    by-thought,  by-word,
     
  7. ópere   et  omissióne:
    by-deed and by-omission:
     
  8. mea   culpa, mea   culpa,
    by-my fault, by-my fault,
     
  9. mea   máxima     culpa.
    by-my very-great fault.
     
  10. Ídeo      precor beátam  Maríam semper Vírginem,
    Therefore I-ask  blessed Mary   ever   Virgin
     
  11. omnes Ángelos et  Sanctos,
    all   Angels  and Saints,
     
  12. et  vos, fratres,  oráre   pro me
    and you, brethren, to-pray for me
     
  13. ad Dóminum Deum nostrum.
    to Lord    God  our.
     
  14. Miserére  nostri, Dómine,
    Have-pity of-us,  O-Lord,
     
  15. Quia peccávimus     tibi.
    For  we-have-sinned to-you.
     
  16. Osténde nobis, Dómine, misericórdiam tuam.
    Show    to-us, O-Lord, mercy         your.
     
  17. Et  salutáre  tuum da   nobis.
    And salvation your give to-us.
     
  18. Qui missus           es      sanáre  contrítos     corde:
    Who having-been-sent you-are to-heal contrite-ones by-heart
     
  19. Kýrie, eléison.
    Lord,  have-mercy.
  20. Kýrie, eléison.
    Lord,  have-mercy.
     
  21. Qui peccatóres vocáre  venísti:
    Who sinners    to-call you-came:
     
  22. Christe, eléison.
    Christ,  have-mercy.
  23. Christe, eléison.
    Christ,  have-mercy.
     
  24. Qui ad déxteram   Patris    sedes,
    Who at right-hand of-Father you-sit,
     
  25. ad interpellándum        pro nobis:
    to [it]-being-interceded for us:
     
  26. Kýrie, eléison.
    Lord,  have-mercy.
  27. Kýrie, eléison.
    Lord,  have-mercy.
     
  28. Misereátur    nostri omnípotens Deus,
    Let-have-pity of-us  almighty   God,
     
  29. et,  dimíssis              peccátis nostris,
    and, having-been-dismissed sins     our,
     
  30. perdúcat          nos ad vitam ætérnam.
    let-bring-through us  to life  everlasting.
     
  31. Amen.
    Amen.

Notes:

  1. Fratres is the plural of frater = "brother"; while the plural may mean "brothers", it can also mean "brothers and sisters", hence the translation "brethren;" in the Interlinear section.
    agnoscámus is the subjunctive of agnóscere = "to acknowlege" (cf. agnóscimus = "we acknowledge").
  2. apti is a plural adjective and means "suited, suitable, proper, fit";
    simus is the subjunctive of "to be". The subjunctive is required after the word ut; in English we would use "may", i.e. ut apti simus ad … = "so that we may be fit to …".
    celebránda is what is known as the gerundive of the verb celebráre = "to celebrate." We do not have gerundives in English; put simply, they are adjectives that show something is to be done. Here it agrees with the neuter plural sacra mystéria. The preposition ad before such a phrase shows purpose. What should we be fit for? In order that the sacred mysteries may be celebrated/ for the celebration of the sacred mysteries..
    The Latin of this line is rather richer in meaning than the conventional English translation.
  3. Deo omnipoténti is the dative of Deus omnípotens; omnípotens is from omnis = "all, every" + potens = "powerful, mighty", just as English 'almighty' is from 'all' + 'mighty.'
  4. vobis is the dative of vos = "you" [more than one person].
  5. peccávi is a past tense of peccáre = "to sin" more will be said in the Summary of Grammar below.
  6. cogitatióne is the ablative of cogitátio = "thought, thinking, process of thought", and verbo is the ablative of verbum = "word, expression, talk"; one use of the ablative to denote how or by what something is done. In this case it shows how I have sinned.
  7. Likewise, ópere is the ablative of opus = "work, what one does, deed", and omissióne is the ablative of omíssio = "omission."
  8. mea culpa could be nominative and mean "mine [is] the fault"; but the words are normally taken to be ablative, showing the cause of my sin, i.e. "through my fault." Either way, we are accepting responsibility for our own sins and not blaming someone else.
  9. No comment needed.
  10. beátam Maríam semper Vírginem is the accusative of beáta María semper Virgo because she is the 'object' of precor, i.e. the person whom I am asking.
  11. Similarly omnes Ángelos et Sanctos is the accusative of the plural omnes Ángeli et Sancti.
  12. vos is accusative for the same reason as the previous words; and me is ablative after the preposition pro = "for, on behalf of."
  13. Dóminum Deum nostrum is the accusative of Dóminus Deus noster after the preposition ad = "to."
  14. If you recall miserére nobis from the Agnus Dei of 'Ordinary of the Mass 1', you may be surprised at nostri here. Latin, like any other language, was not static, but changed over time. In the older Latin of the Classical Period,i.e. the 1st centuries BC and AD, the verb the person whom one pitied was expressed in the genitive case, i.e. the verb miseréri = "to have pity" was used with a genitive, thus we have nostri here. Later, people came to use the dative rather than the genitive, and the Agnus Dei reflects this later use.
    Dómine is a special form of Dominus, known as the vocative; it was used when directly addressing a person. Usually it was exactly the same as the nominative, but singular words ending in -us generally had this special form in Classical Latin. Once again, Agnus Dei, where Jesus is addressed as 'Lamb of God' shows a later post-classical use where Agnus retains the same form as the nominative.
    The invocation Miserére nostri, Dómine is from Psalm 122 (123), verse 3.
  15. Notice that the person one sins against is expressed by the dative tibi (see pronouns in Summary of Grammar below).
  16. misericórdiam tuam is the accusative of misericórdia tua.
  17. No grammatical comment needed. Osténde nobis, Dómine, misericórdiam tuam. Et salutáre tuum da nobis is Psalm 84 (85), verse 8.
  18. missus es literally means 'you are having been sent', i.e. "you have been sent" or, more simply, "you were sent." The opening phrase: Qui missus es … = "You who were sent …" This is awkward in English and the translators simply dropped "who".
    contrítos is the accusative plural of the adjective contrítus = "contrite." Because of the many endings in Latin, adjectives were not uncommonly used as nouns if the meaning was clear; hence here contrítos = "those who are contrite, the contrite [ones]."
    corde is the ablative of cor "heart"; it modifies contrítos and shows in what way they are contrite, i.e. "contrite of heart."
  19. Kýrie, eléison is Greek for "Lord, have mercy" (see Kyrie on the 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' page)
  20. As line 19 above.
  21. venísti is the perfect tense (one of the past tenses) of veníre = "to come."
    These words literally means: "You who came to call sinners"; the translators have omitted "who" because it sounds awkward in English. Cf. line 18 above.
  22. Christe, eléison is Greek for "Christ, have mercy" (see Kyrie on the 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' page)
  23. As line 22 above.
  24. déxteram is accusative of déxtera "right hand", following the preposition ad; and Patris is genitive of Pater = "Father."
    A literal translation would be "You who sit at the right hand of the Father"; the translators have omitted "who" because it sounds awkward in English. Cf. lines 18 and 21 above.
  25. interpellándum is the gerundive of interpelláre = "to intercede"; it is being used here, like celebránda in line 2, after the preposition ad to show purpose, i.e. so that there be an interceding … . In English we would make this personal: "so that you may intercede …" or, more simply, "to intecede … ."
  26. As line 19 above.
  27. As line 19 above.
  28. Misereátur is the subjunctive of Miseréri with the meaning "let [him/her/it] have mercy"; for nostri see line 14 above.
    The fact that omnípotens Deus is nominative makes it clear that "almighty God" is the subject of the verb, i.e. He is the one the priest is asking to have mercy on us.
  29. The phrase dimíssis peccátis nostris literally means "our sins having been dismissed" with all the words in the ablative case. Such phrases are technically known as ablative absolute phrases; they are quite common in Latin and can be regarded as 'shorthand' for longer clauses, i.e. 'when you have dismissed our sins', 'after you have dismissed our sins'.
    dimíttere (from which dimíssis is derived) means "to send away, to dismiss"; it came also to mean "to renounce, give up, abandon" etc. The priest is asking God to cancel or blot out our sins.
  30. perdúcat is not only the subjunctive of perdúcere, with the meaning 'let', but also has the prefix per- "through." As a prefix, it usually has the idea of 'seeing the action through', i.e. completing the action. Here the priest is not merely asking God to bring us to everlasting life, but to bring us through everything and reach eternal life.
    vitam ætérnam is the accusative of vita ætérna, following the preposition ad.
  31. See line 2 of 'GREETING' above.
[ad caput páginæ] [return to top]

LITURGY OF EUCHARIST: PREPARATORY PRAYERS

I've included the Priest's prayers over the bread and the wine as well as the people's responses. It will be noted the the Latin of the prayer over the bread is almost the same as the Latin for the payer over the wine;the older translation obscured this. The new translation brings this out more faithfully (though the parallelism of the last line is still a bit obscured).

Standing at the altar, the Priest takes the paten with the bread and, holding it with both hands slightly raised above the altar, says:
Priest: Benedíctus es, Dómine, Deus univérsi,
quia de tua largitáte accépimus panem,
quem tibi offérimus,
fructum terræ et óperis mánuum hóminum:
ex quo nobis fiet panis vitæ.
Blessed are you, Lord God of all creation,
for through your goodness we have received
the bread we offer you:
fruit of the earth and work of human hands,
it will become for us the bread of life.
Response: Benedíctus Deus in sǽcula. Blessed be God for ever.
The Priest then takes the chalice and, holding it with both hands slightly raised above the altar, says:
Priest: Benedíctus es, Dómine, Deus univérsi,
quia de tua largitáte accépimus vinum,
quod tibi offérimus,
fructum vitis et óperis mánuum hóminum:
ex quo nobis fiet potus spiritális.
Blessed are you, Lord God of all creation,
for through your goodness we have received
the wine we offer you:
fruit of the vine and work of human hands,
it will become our spiritual drink.
Response: Benedíctus Deus in sǽcula. Blessed be God for ever.
The Priest completes additional preparatory rites and the people stand as he says:
Priest: Oráte, fratres:
ut meum ac tuum sacrifícium
acceptábile fiat apud Deum
Patrem omnipoténtem.
Pray, brethren (brothers and sisters),
that my sacrifice and yours
may be acceptable to God,
the almighty Father.
Response: Suscípiat Dóminus sacrifícium de mánibus tuis
ad laudam et glóriam nóminis sui,
ad utilitátem quoque nostram
totiúsque Ecclésiæ suæ sanctæ.
May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands
for the praise and glory of his name,
for our good
and the good of all his holy Church.

Interlinear

  1. Benedíctus es,      Dómine, Deus univérsi,
    Blessed    you-are, O-Lord, God  of-universe,
     
  2. quia de   tua  largitáte accépimus        panem,
    for  from your bounty    we-have-received bread,
     
  3. quem  tibi   offérimus,
    which to-you we-offer,
     
  4. fructum terræ    et  óperis  mánuum   hóminum:
    fruit   of-earth and of-work of-hands of-humans:
     
  5. ex     quo   nobis  fiet           panis vitæ.
    out-of which for-us it-will-become bread of-life.
     
  6. Benedíctus Deus in   sǽcula.
    Blessed    God  into ages.
     
  7. Benedíctus es,      Dómine, Deus univérsi,
    Blessed    you-are, Lord,   God  of-universe,
     
  8. quia de   tua  largitáte accépimus        vinum,
    for  from your bounty    we-have-received wine,
     
  9. quod  tibi   offérimus,
    which to-you we-offer,
     
  10. fructum vitis   et  óperis  mánuum   hóminum:
    fruit   of-vine and of-work of-hands of-humans:
     
  11. ex     quo   nobis  fiet           potus spiritális.
    out-of which for-us it-will-become drink spiritual.
     
  12. Benedíctus Deus in   sǽcula.
    Blessed    God  into ages.
     
  13. Oráte, fratres:
    Pray,  brethren:
     
  14. ut   meum ac  tuum sacrifícium
    that my   and your sacrifice
     
  15. acceptábile fiat       apud               Deum
    acceptable  may-become in-the-presence-of God
     
  16. Patrem omnipoténtem.
    Father almighty.
     
  17. Suscípiat  Dóminus sacrífcium de   mánibus tuis
    Let-accept Lord    sacrifice  from hands   your
     
  18. ad laudam et  glóriam nóminis sui,
    to praise and glory   of-name his,
     
  19. ad utilitátem quoque nostram
    to advantage   also   our
     
  20. totiúsque  Ecclésiæ suæ sanctæ.
    and-of-all Church   his holy.

Notes:

  1. No grammatical comment need
    It will be seen that the Latin addresses the Lord as the "God of the universe" rather than "of all creation." The Latin is closer to the opening words of the Jewish blessings recited over wine to sanctify the Sabbath and Jewish holidays; these blessings begin: "Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe …".
  2. tua largitáte is the ablative of tua lárgitas = "your bounty", after the preposition de = "from, out of".
    The Latin lárgitas is rather more than just "goodness"; it is connected with the English word "largess" and means "abundance, bounty, generosity, liberality" - "abundant goodness" might have been a better translation.
    accépimus is the perfect tense of accípere = "to receive."
    panem is the accusative of panis = "bread."
  3. quem refers to bread and is accusative because it is the object of offérimus, i.e. is is what we are offering.
    tibi is the dative of tu = "you" [one person], "thou."
  4. fructum is the accusative of fructus = "fruit" because it refers to "bread" in line 2.
    terræ is the genitive of terra = "earth" and óperis is the genitive of opus = "work"; both are genitives modifying fructum. The Latin says that bread is both the fruit of the earth and also the fruit of the work (of the hands of humans); this is not clear from the English translation.
    manuum (each u should be pronounced separately) is the genitive plural of manus = "hand."
    hóminum is the genitive plural of homo = "human being." (Latin homo is often translated as "man", but it means 'man' only in a generic sense, i.e. homo sapiens. The Latin for "man" = 'adult human male' is vir.)
  5. quo is ablative after the preposition ex and refers to the bread.
    nobis is dative.
    fiet is the future tense of the verb "to come to pass" which we met in the Lord's Prayer in 'Ordinary of the Mass 1'; the verb can also mean "to become."
    vitæ is the genitive of vita = "life."
  6. The verb "to be" can be omitted in short sentences in Latin if the meaning is clear.
    For the use of in sǽcula ("into the ages") to mean "for ever" see the Lord's Prayer in 'Ordinary of the Mass 1.'
  7. See 1 above.
  8. See 2 above, except that the last word is the neuter noun vinum = "wine" (which is the same for both nominative & accusative).
  9. quod is the neuter form of the word for "which" (line 3 has quem because, in Latin, panis is masculine).
  10. vitis is the genitive of vitis = "vine."
    Apart from vitis instead of terræ, the rest of the line is just the same as line 4, and the remaining notes for line 4 apply also here.
  11. As for line 5 above, except for the last two words, where the panus vitæ is replaced by potus spritális.
  12. See line 6 above.
  13. Oráte is the plural imperative of oráre = "to pray"; if we want to tell just one person to pray, we would say: ora.
  14. Latin says "my and your sacrifice" which sounds awkward in English; hence the translation "my sacrifice and yours."
    ac is another Latin word meaning "and." The more common word for "and" is et; ac is used particularly if there is a close internal connection between the two words. Here, it does not mean 'my sacrifice' and 'your sacrifice', as though the two sacrifices may be different; the use of ac emphasizes that 'my sacrifice' is one and the same sacrifice as yours.
  15. fiat is subjunctive following ut in the previous line; here it corresponds to the English use of may.
    The preposition apud, which is followed by the accusative case, denotes proximity, i.e. "with, by at, near" and with person's it often means "at the house of" (like the French chez) or "in the presence of."
  16. No comment needed.
  17. Suscípiat is subjunctive of suscípere = "to accept." It is used with the meaning "let"; therefore, suscípiat Dóminus = "Let the Lord receive/ may the Lord receive."
    mánibus tuis is the ablative plural of manus tua = "your hand", following the preposition de.
  18. ad is a preposition whose main meanings are "to, towards" ot "at, near." It is always followed by the accusative case, whatever the meaning. It may also be used, as here, to point forward to the purpose of an action.
    laudam et glóriam is the accusative of laus et glória = "praise and glory."
    nóminis sui is the genitive of nomen suum = "his name."
  19. ad again expresses purpose here.
    utilitátem … nostram is the accusative of utílitas … nostra = "our advantage." The Latin utílitas gives us our English word 'utility' and means "usefulness, benefit, profit, advantage."
  20. totiúsque is really two words glued together and pronounced as one word. It is tótius, the genitive of totus = "all, the whole", and -que which is yet another Latin word for "and." But, unlike et and ac, which come between words as "and" does in English, -que is tacked onto the end of the second word. So, for example, "bread and wine" could be: either panis et vinum, or panis ac vinum, or panis vinúmque.
    Ecclésiæ suæ sanctæ is the genitive of Ecclésia sua sancta = "his holy Church."
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THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER: OPENING DIALOGUE

Priest: Dóminus vobíscum. The Lord be with you.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.
Priest: Sursum corda. Lift up your hearts.
Response: Habémus ad Dóminum. We lift them up to the Lord.
Priest: Grátias agámus Dómino Deo nostro. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.
Response: Dignum et justum est. It is right and just.
The Priest continues with the Preface appropriate to the Season or Feast at the end of which all say or sing the Sanctus (see the 'Ordinary of the Mass 1' page).

Interlinear

  1. Dóminus vobíscum.
    Lord    you -with.
     
  2. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.
     
  3. Sursum  corda.
    Upwards hearts.
     
  4. Habémus ad      Dóminum.
    We-hold towards Lord.
     
  5. Grátias agámus    Dómino  Deo nostro.
    Thanks  let-us-do to-Lord God our.
     
  6. Dignum et  justum est.
    Right  and just   it-is.

Notes:

  1. See line 11 of GREETING above
  2. See line 12 of GREETING above
  3. corda is the accusative plural of the neuter noun cor = "heart."
    Thhe two words of this line do not form a complete sentence; but rather the sentence is completed by the faithful in the next line.
  4. habémus is from habére = "to have, to hold, to keep." The whole sentence is really: Sursum  corda habémus ad Dóminum = "We hold our hearts upwards towards the Lord."
    The Latin is actually a translation of the Greek:
         Priest: ἄνω τὰς καρδίας. (Upwards the hearts)
        People: ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν Κύριον (we hold [them] towards the Lord).
    Indeed, some versions of the Greek give the priest a complete sentence: ἄνω σχῶμεν τὰς καρδίας (Let us hold our hearts upwards), thus giving the priest and people complete sentences each.
    Interestingly, the modern Spanish translation has: "Levantemos el corazón" (Let us lift up the heart), to which the people reply: "Lo tenemos levantado hacia el Señor" (We have it lifted up towards the Lord). This is undoubtedly much closer to the original meaning than the current English translation. It seems our translators have opted to use an English version made familiar over three and a half centuries of use from the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
  5. Gátias is the accusative plural of grátia and agámus is the subjunctive of ágere, with the meaning of "let us …"; therefore, grátias agámus means literally "Let us do thanks." But in English we would say "give thanks" rather than "do thanks."
    Dómino Deo nostro is the dative of Dóminus Deus noster = "the Lord our God."
  6. No comment needed for this line.
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THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER: ACCLAMATION

All kneel. The Priest genuflects, takes the host and holds it slightly raised above the paten or the chalice as he says:
Priest: Mystérium fídei. The mystery of faith.
The faithful respond, acclaiming one of the following:
Response: Mortem tuam annuntiámus, Dómine,
et tuam resurrectiónem confitémur,
donec vénias.
We proclaim your Death, O Lord,
and profess your Resurrection
until you come again.
or:
Response: Quotiescúmque manducámus panem hunc
et cálicem bíbimus,
mortem tuam annuntiámus, Dómine,
donec vénias.
When we eat this Bread
and drink this Cup,
we proclaim your Death, O Lord,
until you come again.
or:
Response: Salvátor mundi, salva nos
qui per crucem et resurrectiónem tuam
liberásti nos.
Save us, Saviour of the world,
for by your Cross and Resurrection
you have set us free.

Interlinear

  1. Mystérium fídei
    Mystery   of-faith
     
  2. Mortem tuam annuntiámus, Dómine,
    Death  your we-proclaim, O-Lord,
     
  3. et  tuam resurrectiónem confitémur,
    and your resurrection   we-profess,
     
  4. donec vénias.
    until you-shall-come.
     
  5. Quotiescúmque manducámus panem hunc
    Aa-often-as   we-eat     bread this
     
  6. et  cálicem bíbimus,
    and chalice we-drink,
     
  7. mortem tuam annuntiámus, Dómine,
    death  your we-proclaim, O-Lord,
     
  8. donec vénias.
    until you-shall-come.
     
  9. Salvátor mundi,    salva nos,
    Saviour  of-world, save  us,
     
  10. qui per     crucem et  resurrectiónem tuam
    who through cross  and resurrection   your
     
  11. liberásti      nos.
    you-have-freed us.

Notes:

  1. fídei is the genitive of fides = "faith."
  2. Mortem tuam is the accusative of mors tua = "your death", because it is what we are proclaiming (i.e. the object).
  3. Similarly tuam resurrectiónem is the accusative of tua resurréctio, because it is what we are professing.
  4. vénias is the subjunctive. If we were using donec to indicate nothing except time until something will happen, Latin would use a future tense (vénies = "you will come"); but if some further idea of purpose or expectation is involved, then it uses the subjunctive. Clearly here we do have the idea of expectation, as we look forward to our Lord's second coming.
  5. "When" seems a rather weak translation of quotiescumque which means "as often as."
    "panem hunc is the accusative of panis hic = "this bread", because it is what we eat (object).
  6. Cálicem is the accusative of calix = "chalice, goblet", because it is what we drink.
  7. See line 2 above.
  8. For donec venias, see line 4 above. This second acclamation is clearly modelled on 2 Corinthians 11:26 which, in the Vulgate, reads: Quotiescúmque enim manducábitis panem hunc et cálicem bibétis, mortem Dómini annuntiátis donec véniat "For as often as you [will] eat this bread and you [will] drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes."
  9. mundi is genitive of mundus = "world."
    salva is imperative of salváre = "to save."
  10. qui = "who"; the Latin is rather: "Save us, Saviour of the world, you who … have set us free." This is awkward in English, so the translators have changed it slightly to the phrase familiar from the Stations of the Cross.
    per has all the same sort of meanings as the English word "through".i.e. of space, e.g. per urbem = "through the city"; of time, e.g. per noctem = "through the night"; or, as here, of reason or cause, e.g. per metum = "through fear, because of fear." So here per shows that that our Saviour's cross and resurrection are the reason or cause of our being set free.
    crucem is the accusative of crux = "cross", following the preposition per, and …
    … similarly resurrectiónem tuam is the accusative of resurréctio tua.
  11. liberásti is the perfect tense of liberáre = "to free, to set free." The word was used particularly in Latin of setting slaves free. So the translation here is very apt: Christ has set us free from the slavery of sin (cf. Romans 6: 12-23).
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THE PEACE

The Eucharistic Prayer is followed by the Communion Rite which begins with an invitation to the faithful to recite the Lord's Preyer (see the 'Ordinary of the Mass 1'). After the Lord's Prayer doxology, we have 'The Peace'. After an opening prayer, the Priest begins the dialogue:

Priest: Pax Dómini sit semper vobíscum. The peace of the Lord be with you always.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.
Then, if appropriate, the Deacon, or the Priest, adds:
Minister: Offérte vobis pacem. Let us offer each other the sign of peace.

Interlinear

  1. Pax   Dómini  sit    semper vobíscum.
    Peace of-Lord let-be always you -with.
     
  2. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.
     
  3. Offérte vobis         pacem.
    Offer   to-yourselves peace.

Notes:

  1. Dómini is the genitive of Dóminus = "Lord."
    sit is the subjunctive of "to be", with the meaning "let …", i.e. "Let peace be …"
    For vobíscum, see GREETING line 11 above.
  2. See GREETING line 12 above.
  3. offérte is plural imperative of offérre = "to offer."
    vobis is dative "to you, to yourselves.";
    pacem is the accusative of pax = "peace."
    In the Latin, after the Priest has asked that the peace of the Lord be with each of the faithful, and the fail full have responded wishing that peace to be with his spirit, the priest (or deacon) then asks the faithful to give one another peace: "Offer yourselves peace", i.e. "Offer each other peace."
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INVITATION TO COMMUNION

The Peace is followed by the "Breaking of Bread' during which the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) is said or sung (see 'Ordinary of the Mass 1'). . After this we have the 'Invitation to Communion.'

Priest: Ecce Agnus Dei,
ecce qui tollit peccáta mundi.
Beáti qui ad cenam Agni vocáti sunt.
Behold the Lamb of God,
behold him who takes away the sins of the world.
Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb.
Response: Dómine, non sum dignus
ut intres sub tectum meum,
sed tantum dic verbo,
et sanábitur ánima mea.
Lord, I am not worthy
that you should enter under my roof,
but only say the word
and my soul shall be healed.

Before looking at either the interlinear translation or the notes, it is worth noting that the whole of the Invitation to Communion is firmly rooted in scripture:

Interlinear

  1. Ecce   Agnus Dei,
    Behold Lamb  of-God,
     
  2. ecce   qui tollit     peccáta mundi.
    Behold who takes-away sins   of-world.
     
  3. Beáti   qui ad cenam  Agni    vocáti  sunt.
    Blessed who to supper of-Lamb invited are.
     
  4. Dómine, non sum  dignus
    O-Lord, not I-am worthy
     
  5. ut   intres        sub   tectum meum,
    that you-may-enter under roof   my,
     
  6. sed tantum dic verbo,
    but only   say by-word,
     
  7. et  sanábitur      ánima mea.
    and will-be-healed soul  my.

Notes:

  1. Ecce is an exclamation: "Lo!", "Behold!" It is not a verb and Agnus = "Lamb" is, therefore, nominative case.
    Dei is genitive of Deus = "God."
  2. No word corresponding to English "he/ him" is required before qui = "who."
    The sentence in St John's Gospel has the singular peccátum = "sin", the totality of all the world's sinning. Here in the Mass we have the plural peccáta, expressing the idea of the individual sins of each person in the world.
    mundi is genitive of mundus = "world."
  3. Beáti [plural] is translated variously as "blessed" or "happy." We have come across benedíctus = "blessed" several times already. Benedíctus is "blessed" in the sense of "hallowed" or "consecrated"; beátus is "blessed" in the sense of "enjoying divine favour."
    Not only do you not need a word for "those/ they" before qui = "who"; the verb "to be" can be omitted if the meaning is clear, so beáti qui … means "blessed are they who … ."
    cenam is the accusative of cena = "supper", following the preposition ad.
    Agni is the genitive of Agnus = "Lamb."
  4. dignus is the same adjective that we came across in the neuter form dignum in THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER: OPENING DIALOGUE above. It means "right, proper, becoming, worthy."
  5. intres is subjunctive of intráre = "to enter", which is required after the word ut.
    tectum meum = "my roof" is accusative after sub = "under", but as tectum is neuter, this is the same as its nominative case (see Summary of Grammar below).
  6. dic is the imperative of dicere = "to say."
    tantum = "only" has been added to the original words of the centurion. It emphasizes what follows, namely that our Lord has to nothing else that utter a word for something to happen. It echoes the idea we find at the beginning of Genesis: God has but to utter the word, and it comes to pass.
    verbo is the ablative of verbum; the centurion had faith that our Lord need only speak with a word and did not need to go physically into his house and heal the servant with any physical action. We express the same trust and faith.
  7. sanábitur is the future passive of sanáre = "to heal."
    The puer meus = "my boy, my servant" of the original has been replaced by ánima mea = "my soul."
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THE CONCLUDING RITES

Priest: Dóminus vobíscum. The Lord be with you.
Response: Et cum spíritu tuo. And with your spirit.
The Priest may, at his discretion, use one of the permitted Solemn Blessings, or a Prayer over the People followed by a blessing; there are too many permitted Solemn Blessings and Prayers over the People for it to be practical to list them all here. If the Priest does not use one of these, then he blesses the people, saying:
Priest: Benedícat vos omnípotens Deus,
Pater, et Filius, et Spíritus Sanctus.
May almighty God bless you,
the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
Response: Amen. Amen.
Then the Deacon, or the Priest himself, say one of four dismissals:
Minister: Ite, missa est. Go forth, the Mass is ended.
or
Minister: Ite, ad Evangélium Dómini annuntiándum. Go and announce the Gospel of the Lord.
or
Minister: Ite in pace, glorificándo vita vestra Dóminum. Go in peace, glorifying the Lord by your life.
or
Minister: Ite in pace. Go in peace.
Response: Deo grátias. Thanks be to God.

Interlinear

  1. Dóminus vobíscum.
    Lord    you -with.
     
  2. Et  cum  spíritu tuo.
    And with spirit  your.
     
  3. Benedícat vos omnípotens Deus,
    Let-bless you almighty   God
     
  4. Pater,  et  Filius, et  Spíritus Sanctus.
    Father, and Son,    and Spirit   Holy.
     
  5. Amen.
    Amen.
     
  6. Ite, missa          est.
    Go,  dismissal/Mass is.
     
  7. Ite, ad Evangélium Dómini  annuntiándum.
    Go,  to Gospel     of-Lord being-announced.
     
  8. Ite in pace,  glorificándo   vita    vestra Dóminum.
    Go  in peace, with-glorifying by-life your   Lord.
     
  9. Ite in pace.
    Go  in peace.
     
  10. Deo    grátias.
    To-God thanks.

Notes:

  1. See GREETING line 11 above.
  2. See GREETING line 12 above.
  3. Benedícat is the subjunctive of benedícere = "to bless", with the meaning of "let [someone] bless … ."
    omnípotens Deus is nominative, showing it is the subject of benedícat = "let almighty God bless … ."
  4. Pater, Filius and Spíritus Sanctus are all nominative, showing that they also are subjects of benedícat. Technically, these words are said to be in apposition to omnípotens Deus of the previous line.
    The whole sentence means: "Let/May almighty God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, bless you." The translations have put "the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit" at the end to because that's where it is in Latin.
  5. See GREETING line 2 above.
  6. Ite is the plural imperative of ire = "to go."
    missa was in origin a colloquial equivalent of the more formal word míssio = "dismissal"; and Ite, missa est simply meant: "Go, this is the dismissal." But the word missa came to be applied to the whole ceremony, i.e. missa came to mean "the Mass", a meaning which it has kept till the present day. This change of use is ancient and is found in the writing of St Ambrose in the 4th century, though it did not become common until two centuries later. The phrase missa est came to understood as meaning "the Mass exists [since we've celebrated it it]" and, in effect, "the Mass is over." The English translation attempts to include both the "dismissal" and the "Mass is over." meanings.
  7. Evangélium is accusative of the neuter word Evangélium = "Gospel", after the preposition ad.
    annuntiándum is the neuter form of the gerundive of annuntáre = "to announce." If you recall from PENITENTIAL ACT line 2 above, the grundive is an adjective and it is neuter here because the adjective defines Evangélium: a to-be-announced Gospel.
    We saw in that line above that ad followed by a gerundive constructions shows purpose; it is why we are told to go, i.e. that the Gospel may be announced.
    Dómini is the genitive of Dóminus = "Lord."
  8. pace is the ablative of pax = "peace", following the preposition in.
    glorificándo is the ablative of the gerund of glorificáre = "to glorify." The gerund is, in fact, identical in form to the neuter forms of the gerundive, but its use is different. It is a noun, signifying the action of the verb, and corresponds to English verbal-nouns ending in -ing, cf. cycling is good exercise; she likes reading crime novels; he was dreaming about travelling to Japan, etc. It is ablative because it tells us with what action we are to go from Mass, i.e. glorifying [the Lord].
    vita vestra is ablative, telling us how we are to glorify the Lord.
    Dóminum is the accusative of Dóminus ="Lord", as this is the object of glorificándo.
  9. No comment needed.
  10. Deo is the dative of Deus = "God."
    grátias is the accusative plural of grátia as the object of an understood ágimus (i.e. "we do thanks to God"), see line 5 of THE EUCHARISTIC PRAYER: OPENING DIALOGUE above.
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