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SUMMARY OF GRAMMAR 3: VERBS

Verbs will be found to be the most complicated part of most languages; this is certainly so of Latin. It is quite beyond the scope of these notes to deal all the intricacies of Latin verbs. Basically, we summarizes the forms we have met in the various texts of the Mass, but there is slightly more information given to help understand verbs for those wish to find out more.
 

[SOME DEFINITIONS] [PRINCIPAL PARTS] [SOME DERIVED TENSES] [PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS] [NON-FINITE VERBS]

SOME DEFINITIONS

A verb may be

Mood
Mood is a grammatical category that, in theory, expresses the degree or kind of reality of a proposition as expressed by the speaker or writer. Latin distinguishes three such moods:
  1. indicative is the most common and is used for all statements the speaker or writer believes or assumes to be true;
  2. subjunctive is a traditional label for forms that occur in certain languages, especially European ones, that express such ideas as remoteness, possibility, desire, wish and so on. It is way beyond the scope of these notes to deal with the Latin subjunctive in full.
    In the texts of the Mass we met it most with the 'let' meaning, e.g. veniat "let it come", fiat "let it happen, let it be done", agnoscámus "let us acknowledge." We found it also after ut in: Dómine, non sum dignus ut intres … "Lord, I am not worthy that you may enter …".
  3. imperative is used for uttering (or writing) commands, e.g. dona nobis "give us!"; ite "go!"
Tense
In linguistics, tense correlates with distinctions of time; but in historic and common use, tense refers to particular forms exhibited by a verb in a particular language which exhibit both time and aspectual differences.
For example: although in the strict linguistic sense English distinguishes only between past (Louise lived in France) and non-past (Louise lives in France), traditionally grammar books exhibit a whole array of tenses, e.g. 'simple past' (Louise lived), 'past continuous' (Louise was living), 'past perfect' (Louise had lived), 'future continuous' (Louise will be living) etc., etc. On this page, we use 'tense' in this second, traditional way.

So Latin is traditionally said to have six indicative tenses and four subjunctive tenses:

Present Indicative
mitto
I send, I am sending
Imperfect Indicative
mittébam
I was sending, I sent (nabitually)
Future Indicative
mittam
I shall send, I shall be sending
Perfect Indicative
misi
I sent, I have sent
Pluperfect Indicative
míseram
I had sent
Future Perfect Indicative
mísero
I shall have sent
Present Subjunctive
mittam
Let me send; I may send
Imperfect Subjunctive
mítterem
I might send
(Note: Translations with 'may' and 'might' are given for illustrative purposes only; there are several other meanings the Latin Subjunctive may have.)
Perfect Subjunctive
míserim
I may have sent
Pluperfect Indicative
misíssem
I might have sent
Note:
  • The future indicative and the present subjunctive appear to be the same, but this is so only for the "I" meaning; cf.
    future indicative: mittes, mittet "you will send, he (she, it) will send"
    present subjunctive: mittas, mittat "you may send, he (she, it) may send"
  • We will not give full forms of all these ten tenses below. The only ones we met in the texts of the Mass (except sanábitur "will be healed") are the present indicative, perfect indicative and present subjunctive. We shall set out only those tenses in full.
Subject
Some languages, like English and French, must always express a subject by a separate word; other languages, e.g. Spanish or Italian, often do not need to do this, because the verb endings are distinct enough to make this unnecessary. Latin behaves like Spanish and Portuguese in this regard, cf.
EnglishFrenchSpanishItalianLatin
I seeje voisveovedovídeo
you seetu voisvesvedivides
he/ she seesil/ elle voitvevedevidet
the child seesl'enfant voitil niño veil bambino vedeinfans videt

In all languages, if the subject is a noun it must, of course, be expressed separately as in the last example above. But in languages like Spanish, Italian and Latin the subject is generally omitted if it is "I, (thou) you, he, she, it we, they", i.e. a personal pronoun. In Latin subject pronouns are used only for emphasis or contrast. the endings for the ten tenses of verbs are shown below; thus:

 Perfect Indicative onlyThe other nine tenses
SingularPluralSingularPlural
1st person-i
"I"
-imus
"we"
-o, -m
"I"
-mus
"we"
2nd person-ísti
"thou, you"
-ístis
"ye, you"
-s
"thou, you"
-tis
"ye, you"
2nd person-it
"he, she, it"
-érunt
"they"
-t
"he, she, it"
-nt
"they"
Note:
  • Strictly we should say these are the endings for all tenses of active verbs. But we will worry about that when we come to the Section PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS below.
  • The 2nd person endings, which we translate as "you" in modern English, are strictly singular and plural as shown. The plural is not used as a polite term as "vous" as, for example, in modern French.
Non-finite Parts
Once again it is beyond the scope of this page to give detailed description of these forms. We note the various forms in sections below.
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PRINCIPAL PARTS

Dictionaries show verbs by giving their principal parts. From these principal parts, all the forms of regular verbs can be derived.

Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are grouped into conjugations in a similar way that we saw nouns grouped into declensions. The first two principal parts show what conjugation a verb belongs to, thus:
 Present
Indicative
Present
Infinitive
Pefect
Indicative
Supine
(no English equivalent)
1st conjugationlaudo
I praise, I am praising
laudáre
to praise
laudávi
I praised, I have praised
laudátum
 
2nd conjugationvídeo
I see, I am seeing
vidére
to see
vidi
I saw, I have seen
visum
 
3rd conjugationmitto
I send, I am sending
míttere
to send
misi
I sent, I have sent
missum
 
3rd conjugation
capio verbs
cápio
I take, I am taking
cápere
to take
cepi
I took, I have taken
captum
 
4th conjugationáudio
I hear, I am hearing
audíre
to hear
audívi
I heard, I have heard
audítum
 
Note:
  • Most 1st conjugation verbs form their perfect indicative and their supine the same way as laudáre. But examples of other formations are:
    ádjuvo, adjuváre, adjúvi, adjútum "to help"
    do, dare, dedi, datum "to give"
    lavo, laváre, lavi, lautum
    "to wash"
    sto, stare, steti, statum "to stand"
    veto, vetáre, vétui, vétitum "to forbid"
  • Similarly, 4th conjugation verbs tend to form their perfect indicative and supine the same way as audíre. But there are other formations such as:
    apério, aperíre, apérui, apértum "to open"
    sálio, salíre, salui, saltum "to leap"
    séntio, sentíre, sensi, sensum "to feel, to perceive"
    vénio, veníre, veni, ventum "to come"
  • You will notice that the stress falls on the infinitive ending in the 1st, 2nd and 4th conjugations; but with the 3rd conjugation it remains on the verb stem. We shall find a similar pattern when we set out the present tense of these verbs in the next section.
Irregular Verbs
Fortunately Latin has very few of these. They are always identifiable as irregular by their principal parts since the first two principle parts never fit one of the patterns shown above for regular verbs. Also the first two principle parts will indicate how irregular the verb will be; if they are very irregular, then so will the verb prove to be; if, however, they are similar to, but not quite the same as, the regular patterns then the verb is likely not to be very irregular (you will find it usually only the Present Indicative tense that is a bit irregular).
Examples of verbs we have met are:
Present
Indicative
Present
Infinitive
Pefect
Indicative
Supine
(no English equivalent)
sum
I am
esse
to be
fui
I was, I have been
-
 
eo
I go, I am going
ire
to go
ivi or ii
I went, I have gone
itum
 
fero
I bring, I am bringing
ferre
to bring
tuli
I brought, I have brought
latum
 
Note:
  • We actually met ferre in the compound form offérre (← ob + ferre) "to offer", its principle parts being: óffero, offérre, óbtuli, oblátum.
  • We also met the irregular verb fio, fíeri, factus sum "to become, to be made, to be done." We shall consider it further in the Section PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS below.
Deriving Verb Forms from Principal Parts
If you consider the table of tenses above and the principal parts of mittere, it will be apparent that the tenses form two parallel sets; these are traditionally known as 'present stem' tenses and 'perfect stem' tenses, thus:
  • Present stem tenses
    The present, imperfect and future indicative tenses and the present and imperfect subjunctive tenses are derived from the first two principal parts (e.g. mitt-mitto, mittere).
  • Perfect stem tenses
    The perfect, pluperfect and future perfect indicative tenses and the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive tenses are derived from the third principal part (e.g. mis-misi).
So what is derived from the supine? Very little, infact - just two other parts of the verb besides the supine itself.
For example, from missum are derived:
  • the future active participle missúrus "about to send, going to send";
  • the perfect passive participle missus "(having been) sent".
The importance of the perfect passive participle will become clearer in the Section PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS below.
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SOME DERIVED TENSES

Present stem tenses
It is with these tenses that we find differences between the four conjugations and where irregular verbs may have irregular forms. We show below the two tenses we met in the texts of the Mass, i.e. present indicative and present subjunctive, together with the imperatives, as these also are derived from the present stem.
 Regular VerbsIrregular Verbs
Infinitivelaudáre
to praise
vidére
to see
míttere
to send
cápere
to take
audíre
to hear
esse
to be
ire
to go
ferre
to bring
P
R
E
˙
I
N
D
I
you (s)
he/she/it
 
we
you (pl)
they
laudo
laudas
laudat
 
laudámus
laudátis
laudant
vídeo
vides
videt
 
vidémus
vidétis
vident
mitto
mittis
mittit
 
míttimus
míttitis
mittunt
cápio
capis
capit
 
cápimus
cápitis
cápiunt
áudio
audis
audit
 
audímus
audítis
áudiunt
sum
es
est
 
sumus
estis
sunt
eo
is
it
 
imus
itis
eunt
fero
fers
fert
 
férimus
fertis
ferunt
P
R
E
˙
S
U
B
I
you (s)
he/she/it
 
we
you (pl)
they
laudem
laudes
laudet
 
laudémus
laudétis
laudent
vídeam
vídeas
vídeat
 
videámus
videátis
vídeant
mittam
mittas
mittat
 
mittámus
mittátis
mittant
cápiam
cápias
cápiat
 
capiámus
capiátis
cápiant
áudiam
áudias
áudiat
 
audiámus
audiátis
áudiant
sim
sis
sit
 
simus
sitis
sint
eam
eas
eat
 
eámus
eátis
eant
feram
feras
ferat
 
ferámus
ferátis
ferant
I
M
P
E
R
˙
singular
 
plural
lauda
 
laudáte
vide
 
vidéte
mitte
 
míttite
cape
 
cápite
audi
 
audíte
es
 
este
i
 
ite
fer
 
ferte

It will be seen that the singular imperative of ferre is just the bare stem fer with no ending. There are three 3rd conjugation verbs that do this also but, unlike ferre they form the plural imperative regularly. they are:
 Singular imperative  Plural imperative
dico, dícere = to saydicdícite
duco, dúcere = to leadducdúcite
fácio, fácere = to make, to dofacfácite

Perfect stem tenses
All these tenses are formed in exactly the same way for all active verbs - there are no exceptions; even the verb "to be" behaves itself here. So if you look at the table of tenses in Section SOME DEFINITIONS above, you will be able to work out that, e.g.:
Perfect Indicative
fui
I was, I have been
Pluperfect Indicative
fúeram
I had been
Future Perfect Indicative
fúero
I shall have been
Perfect Subjunctive
fúerim
I may have been
Pluperfect Indicative
fúíssem
I might have been
 

Also, towards the end of Section SOME DEFINITIONS you saw the personal endings of the perfect indicative tense. It follows, therefore, that, e.g.
laudávi = I praised, I have praised
laudavísti = you (s) praised, you (s) have praised
laudávit = he/she/it praised, he/she/it has praised
 
laudávimus = we praised, we have praised
laudavístis = you (pl) praised, you (pl) have praised
laudavérunt = they praised, they have praised
fui = I was, I have been
fuísti = you (s) were, you (s) have been
fuit = he/she/it was, he/she/it has been
 
fúimus = we were, we have been
fuístis = you (pl) were, you (pl) have been
fuérunt = they were, they have been

It remains to add that 2nd person forms ending in VOWEL+vísti(s) are frequently contracted thus:
laudavísti or laudásti = you (s) praised, you (s) have praised
laudavístis or laudástis = you (pl) praised, you (pl) have praised
 
audivísti or audísti = you (s) heard, you (s) have heard
audivístis or audístis = you (pl) heard, you (pl) have heard
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PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS

All the verbs we have considered above have been active verbs. A verb is said to be passive if its underlying object appears as its subject, e.g.
active:Paul is writing the letter-Paulus epístulam scribit
passive:The letter is being written by Paul-Epístula a Paulo scríbitur

The phrase by Paul (a Paulo) is said to be the agent of the passive verb and represents the underlying subject of the active form. In Latin, English and many other languages, however, the passive is particularly common if we either do not care or do not know who or what the underlying active subject is, e.g.
The letter has been sent - Epístula missa est.
 
Deponent verbs are peculiarly Latin and we shall consider them later in this Section.
Synopsis of Passive Tenses
Latin has the same ten tenses in the passive as it has in the active, e.g.
Present Indicative
mittor
I am sent, I am being sent
Imperfect Indicative
mittébar
I was being sent,
I was sent (nabitually)
Future Indicative
mittar
I shall be sent
Perfect Indicative
missus sum
I was sent, I have been sent
Pluperfect Indicative
míssus eram
I had been sent
Future Perfect Indicative
míssus ero
I shall have been sent
Present Subjunctive
mittar
Let me be sent; I may be sent
Imperfect Subjunctive
mítterer
I might be sent
(Note: Translations with 'may' and 'might' are given for illustrative purposes only; there are several other meanings the Latin Subjunctive may have.)
Perfect Subjunctive
míssus sim
I may have been sent
Pluperfect Indicative
missus essem
I might have been sent

Note: just as in the active, so in the passive the Future Indicative and the Present Subjunctive are the same only in the "I" form; cf:
future indicative: mittéris, mittétur "you will be sent, he (she, it) will be sent"
present subjunctive: mittáris, mittátur "you may be sent, he (she, it) may be sent."

It will be apparent from the above table that the five 'present stem' tenses of the active are formed from the 'present stem' in a similar way in the passive. However the five passive perfect tenses are clearly not formed from the 'perfect stem'; they are compounds of the perfect passive participle and the verb "to be." Let us consider these two system in more detail below.
 

Present Stem Passive Tenses
These are all formed in the way way as their active counterparts, except for the subject endings; in the passive these endings are:
 SingularPlural
1st person -or (where active has -o),
-r (where active has -m)

"I"
-mur
"we"
2nd person -ris
"thou, you"
-mini
"ye, you"
2nd person -tur
"he, she, it"
-ntur
"they"

We give below the present indicative passive and the present subjunctive passive for all regular verbs together with the irregular verb ferre "to bring" (the verbs "to be" and "to go" cannot have a passive form as they cannot have a direct object in the active - but see below).
We include also the passive infinitive and the passive imperatives since, like their active counterparts, they are derived from the present stem.
 Regular VerbsIrregular Verb
Infinitivelaudári
to be praised
vidéri
to be seen
mitti
to be sent
capi
to be taken
audíri
to be heard
ferri
to be brought
P
R
E
˙
I
N
D
I
you (s)
he/she/it
 
we
you (pl)
they
laudor
laudáris
laudátur
 
laudámur
laudámini
laudántur
vídeor
vidéris
vidétur
 
vidémur
vidémini
vidéntur
mittor
mítteris
míttitur
 
míttimur
mittímini
mittúntur
cápior
cáperis
cápitur
 
cápimur
capímini
cápiúntur
áudior
audíris
audítur
 
audímur
audímini
áudiúntur
feror
ferris
fertur
 
férimur
ferímini
ferúntur
P
R
E
˙
S
U
B
I
you (s)
he/she/it
 
we
you (pl)
they
lauder
laudéris
laudétur
 
laudémur
laudémini
laudénturß
vídear
videáris
videátur
 
videámur
videámini
videántur
mittar
mittáris
mittátur
 
mittámur
mittámini
mittántur
cápiar
capiáris
capiátur
 
capiámur
capiámini
capiántur
áudiar
audiáris
audiátur
 
audiámur
audiámini
audiántur
ferar
feráris
ferátur
 
ferámur
ferámini
ferántur
I
M
P
E
R
˙
singular
 
plural
laudáre
 
laudámini
vidére
 
vidémini
mittere
 
mittímini
capere
 
capímini
audíre
 
audímini
ferre
 
ferímini

  Note:
  • The singular passive imperative is identical to the active infinitive. This, however, is a pure coincidence; the two forms had quite different origins.
  • Although verbs, such as the verb "to go" cannot ever have a passive form in English, they can be used impersonally with 3rd person sinular passive endings in Latin. So from ire we may the passive forms:
    present indic. itur = one goes, they are going, people are going (cf. French on va)
    present subj. eátur = let people go, let them go etc.
Perfect Passive Tenses
We have seen that these are composed of the perfect passive participle and the verb "to be." A participle is a verbal adjective and, like all adjectives in Latin, it changes to agree in number, gender and case, i.e. it declines. the Latin perfect passive participles is formed simply by:
  1. Removing the final -um from the supine (4th principle part) to obtain the supine stem;
  2. adding the endings of an adjective like bonus [masc.], bona [fem.], bonum [neut.] (click here, if you have forgotten) to the supine stem.
When the perfect passive participle is used to form a perfect passive tense it always in the nominative case as it agrees with the subject of the sentence. Thus a man may say "Laudátus sum" for "I have been praised", but a woman will say "Laudata sum".
 
There is little point in displaying the perfect indicative passive at for all verbs, we set it out just for laudáre.
 MasculineFeminineNeuter
I was praised, I have been praisedlaudátus sumlaudáta sum(laudátum sum)
you (s) were praised, you (s) have been praisedlaudátus eslaudáta es(laudátum es)
he/she/it was praised, he/she/it has been praisedlaudátus estlaudáta estlaudátum est
we were praised, we have been praisedlaudáti sumuslaudátæ sumus(laudáta sumus)
you (pl) were praised, you (pl) have been praisedlaudáti estislaudátæ estis(laudáta estis)
they were praised, they have been praisedlaudáti suntlaudátæ suntlaudáta sunt

Since things did not speak, except in stories, and only in modern times have robots spoken, the first person neuter forms ("I, we") are not likely to occur; and, as people do not normally speak to things, the 2nd person neuter forms ("you") will also not normally occur.
 
Deponent & Semi-Deponent Verbs
These are verbs which in Latin have only passive endings but function as active verbs. Below are examples given with their principal parts:
 Present
Indicative
Present
Infinitive
Pefect
Indicative
1st conjugationlætor
I rejoice, I am rejoicing
lætári
to rejoice
lætátus sum
I rejoiced, I have rejoiced
2nd conjugationconfíteor
I confess, I am confessing
confitéri
to confess
conféssus sum
I confessed, I have confessed
3rd conjugationloquor
I speak, I am speaking
loqui
to speak
locútus sum
I spoke, I have spoken
3rd conjugation
capio verbs
pátior
I suffer, I am suffering
páti
to suffer
passus sum
I suffered, I have suffered
4th conjugationlárgior
I bestow, I am bestowing
largíri
to bestow
largítus sum
I bestowed, I have bestowed

The deponent verbs confitéri, loqui and patior came in the text of the Mass. We also came across several times the verb: miséreor, miseréri, miséritus sum "to have mercy [on]".

The verb lætári is familiar from the opening line of the Marian antiphon: Regína cæli, lætáre, allelúja ("Queen of heaven, rejoice, alleluia").

As well as deponent verbs, there are a few verbs whose present stem tenses are ordinary active ones, but their perfect tenses are formed like deponent verbs; these are known as semi-deponent for obvious reasons. Examples are:

áudeo (I dare)audére (to dare)ausus sum (I dared, I have dared)
gáudeo (I am glad) gaudére (to be glad) gavísus sum (I was glad, I have have been glad)
fido (I trust)fídere (to trust)fisus sum (I trusted, I have trusted)

Fídere is more common in the compounds:
    cónfido, confídere, confísus sum "to trust"
    díffido, diffídere, diffísus sum "to distrust"
 

The Verb: fio, fíeri, factus sum
This verb may look at first sight as though it is a semi-deponent. But if you look carefully you will see that:
  • while fio has an active ending, the infinitive fíeri has the final -i of a passive infinitive; yet no passive infinitive actually ends in -eri with the e being unstressed;
  • the perfect factus sum is the regular perfect passive of the verb: fácio, fácere, feci, factum "to make, to do."
So what is going on? Three things:
  1. The verb fio, fíeri has present stem forms that are have the endings of a 4th conjugation (áudio, audíre) active verb, except for the present infinitive fíeri and the imperfect subjunctive fíerem (which does not concern us here). It means "to become, to come to pass, to happen."
  2. Fio, fíeri came to be used also to mean "to be done, to be made" and came to be used instead of the present passive forms of fácio, fácere which, thus, has only active present stem forms.
  3. The verb fácere did, however, retain its perfect passive forms; but these came to be used as the perfect forms of fíeri also, so that, e.g., factum est may mean: "it was made, it has been made", "it was done, it has been done", "it became, it has become", "it came to pass, it has come to pass" etc.
We found this verb four times in the text of the Mass. There are two examples of the present subjunctive:
  • ut meum ac tuum sacrifícium acceptábile fiat … "[pray] that my and your sacrifice may become acceptable …" i.e. "{Pray] … that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable …" in the priest's preparatory prayer before the Prefacre and Eucharistic Prayer;
  • fiat volúntas tua "let your will be done" i.e. "thy will be done" in the Lord's Prayer.
and two examples in the future indicative in the prayers at the Offertory:
  • fiet panis vitæ. "it will become the bread of life."
  • fiet potus spiritális. "it will become [our] spiritual drink."
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NON-FINITE VERBS

As it was written above: "non-finite [verbs] cannot serve as the principle verb of a sentence or clause; they include (in English, Latin and many other languages) infinitives, participles and, in Latin, supines, gerunds and gerundives."

It is beyond the scope of this page to deal with all these forms in detail. We will just mention each briefly below.

Infinitive
We have seen examples of infinitives in many of the tables above. It remains merely to say that Latin, like English, has four infinitives, e.g.
 ActivePassive
Presentmíttere
to send
mitti
to be sent
Perfectmisísse
to have sent
missus esse
to be have been sent
Note:
  • The present infinitives are formed from the present stem and examples have been given above of all regular verbs snd of some irregular verbs.
  • The perfect active infinitive, like the perfect active tenses is formed the same way for all verbs; we add -ísse to the perfect stem. The only thing to add is that perfect active infinitives ending in s ending in VOWEL+vísti(s) are frequently contracted thus:
        laudavísse or laudástse = to have praised
        audivísse or audístse = to have heard
  • The perfect passive infinitive is formed in the same way as the perfect passive tenses, i.e. by using the perfect passive participle with the verb esse "to be."

Text books also usually give so-called future infinitives. English has none, and there is only one construction in Latin in which such infinitives might be needed. The so-called 'future active infinitive' is merely the future participle with esse "to be" (see below); and the so-called 'future passive infinitive' is not strictly passive and is rarely used in Latin.


Participle
Participles in English and Latin retain certain verbal features, e.g. they have direct objects (if active) and they may be modified by adverbs; but they function as adjectives. Latin participles, therefore, have the endings of adjectives. A Latin verb may have three such participles:
1. Present Participle
This is always active and is declined similar to a 3rd declension adjective like felix, e.g. "praising" = laudans [nominative], laudántis [genitive]; but participles usually form ablative singular in -e rather than -i. They are formed from the present stem thus:
laudo, laudárelaudans "praising"video, vidérevidens "seeing"
mitto, mítteremittens "sending"cápio, cáperecápiens "taking"
áudio, audíreaudiens "hearing"sum, esse has no present participle
eo, ireiens, [gen.] euntis "going"fero, ferreferens "bringing"
Note:
  • Deponent verbs form their present participles in exactly the same way, e.g. loquor, loquiloquens "speaking."
  • In medieval Latin, the verb sum, esse is given a present participle ens "being" by some and essens by others (cf. the English words 'entity' and 'essence.')
Example of present participles from the Salve Regína (Hail, Holy queen):
ad te suspirámus, geméntes et flentes in hac lacrimárum valle.
to thee we sigh, mourning and weeping in this vale of tears.
 
2. Perfect Participle
This is usually passive and is formed from the supine (4th principle part) by using the endings of a 1st & 2nd declension like bonus. We have seen it used above with the verb "to be" to form perfect passive tenses.

Perfect participles occurred several times in the text of the Mass; one fairly frequent one is:
  benedíctus "(having been) blessed" ← benedíco, benedícere, benedíxi, benedíctum "to bless."
Several perfect participles occur in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; here is an example of two in the accusative singular case:
  [credo] in unum Dóminum Jesum Christum … génitum non factum
  "[I believe] in one Lord Jesus Christ … begotten not made …"

The participle génitus is from gigno, gígnere, génui, génitum "to beget, to bear, to bring forth"; the participle factus has occurred several times above on this page.

The perfect participle of deponent verbs is active. It is given as the 3rd principle part with sum "I am". In the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed we find passus "having suffered" (for principal parts, see the Section PASSIVE & DEPONENT VERBS above).
 

3. Future Participle
This is always active and is formed by adding -úrus to the stem of the supine or perfect participle, e.g.
  laudátumlaudatúrus "about to praise, going to praise"
  missummissúrus "about to send, going to send"
  itumitúrus "about to go, going to go"
  locútus (est)locutúrus "about to speak, going to speak"
The future participle of esse "to be" is: futúrus "about to be, going to be."

These participles are declined like adjectives of the 1st & 2nd declension like bonus. It is commonly used with the verb "to be" to form a sort of future tense; we saw an example of this in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed:
  ventúrus est cum gloria … "… he is going to come with glory …"
Also at the end of the Creed we found an example of the future participle in the genitive singular, agreeing with the noun sǽculi "of the age (epoch, era)", thus:
  exspécto … vitam ventúri sǽculi. "I look forward to … the life of the age [which is] going to come."

Supine
The main use of the supine is as the 4th principal part of non-deponent verbs!

Its use is otherwise restricted; it shows purpose and occurs only in association with verbs denoting motion. It is usually translated just like a present active infinitive in English, e.g.
  captívos liberátum venit "he came to free the prisoners."
It is, however, not common, other means of showing purpose being preferred.
 

Gerund & Gerundive
The Gerundive is a verbal adjective declined as a the 1st & 2nd declension like bonus. The Gerund is simply the neuter of this adjective used as a noun. It is very doubtful that the Romans formally distinguished the two things. But text books do distinguish between Gerunds and Gerundive so you will meet the two terms. The distinction, however, is in usage, not in form.
Formation of Gerund and Gerundive
They are formed from the present stem, thus:
 1st two principal partsGerundiveGerund
masc.fem.neuter
1st conj.laudo, laudáre
lætor, lætári
laudándus
lætándus
laudánda
lætánda
laudándum
lætándum
2nd conj.vídeo, vidére
confíteor, confitéri
vidéndus
confiténdus
vidénda
confiténda
vidéndus
confiténdum
3rd conj.mitto, míttere
loquor, loqui
mitténdus
loquéndus
mitténda
loquénda
mitténdum
loquéndum
3rd conj.
capio verbs
cápio, cápere
pátior, páti
capiédus
patiéndus
capiéda
patiénda
capiédum
patiéndum
4th conj.áudio, audíre
lárgior, largíri
audíéndus
largiéndus
audíénda
largiénda
audíéndum
largiéndum
irreg.
verbs
sum, esse(not possible) esséndum
eo, ire(not possible) eúndum
fero, ferreferéndusferéndaferéndum
Note:
  • We shall see below that the gerundive is a passive verbal adjective. We know that a verb which cannot have a a direct object cannot ever have a passive in English, although it may have an impersonal passive in Latin. Therefore such verbs, e.g. "to go" and "to be" will not a a gerundive except for the neuter in impersonal expressions.
  • All verbs, however, may have a gerund since, in this use, it is an active noun and thus all verbs may have a gerund.
  • In Classical Latin no gerund(ive) of esse "to be" is ever found; the form esséndum is used in Medieval Latin.
Gerund
As we said above, this is an active verbal noun. It is used in the various noun cases thus:
  • It is never used in the nominative case
  • It used in the accusative case only after a preposition. The most preposition used with a gerund (and, as we will see below, a gerundive) is ad, denoting purpose, e.g.
      ad cantándum stetit "he stood (in order) to sing"
  • It may be used in the genitive and dative cases, e.g.
      ars cantándi "the art of singing"
      óperam cantándo dat "he is giving his attention to [his] singing"
  • Its most common uses, however, are after ad as explained above, and in the ablative case. This is sometimes preceeded by a preposition, but more often comes by itself, e.g.
    cantándo voluptátem cepit "he took pleasure from singing"
Note:
  • It is not used in the nominative case nor in the accusative, unless preceded by a preposition, because, unlike its English counterpart, it is never used as the subject or direct object of a verb. In these instances English may use the infinitive as an alternative and Latin must use the infinitive; thus, e.g.:
      Singing makes me happy ~ To sing makes me happy = cantáre me felícem facit (subject)
      I love singing ~ I love to sing = cantáre amo. (direct object).
Gerundive: Obligation or Necessity
In the nominative case (and occasionally the accusative) the gerundive expresses obligation or necessity. It is reputed that the Roman Senator, Cato the Elder, always prefaced his speeches with: "Carthago delénda est" ("Carthage must be destroyed"). Other examples are:
  epístulæ mitténdæ sunt "the letters must be sent"
  evangélium annuntiándum est "the Gospel must be announced"
  eúndum est "we must go, they must go, people should go, etc" (impersonal).

The person on whom the obligation or necessity falls is expressed in the dative case, e.g.
  epístulæ mihi mitténdæ sunt "I must send the letters"
  evangélium nobis annuntiándum est "we must announce the Gospel"
  Petro eúndum est "Peter must go"

Finally you may note that some Latin gerundives have made their way into English, e.g.

  • agenda [neut. pl.] "things that should done" ← ago, ágere, egi, actum "to do, to act"
  • addendum [neut. s.] "something that should added" ← addo, áddere, áddidi, ádditum "to add"
  • memorandum [neut. s.] (often abbreviated to memo) "something that should be called to mind"
    mémoro, memoráre, memorávi, memorátum "to mention, to call to mind"
  • corrigenda [neut. pl.] "things that should corrected" ← córrigi, corrígere, corréxi, corréctum "to correct"
Gerundive: Used instead of a Gerund
The use of a gerund with a direct object is generally avoided; in its place a gerundive is preferred. So, e.g. rather than ad captívos liberándum venit, Latin prefers ad captívos liberándos venit "he came to free the prisoners."

We had an example of this use of the gerundive in the Mass:

  • ad Evangélium Dómini annuntiándum "(in order) to announce the Gospel of the Lord."
Besides after a preposition with the accusative case, we have:
  • the genitive, e.g. gáudium Evangélii annuntiándi "the joy of announcing the Gospel"
  • the dative, e.g. óperam Evangélio annuntiándo dat "he is giving his attention to announcing the Gospel"
  • the dative, e.g. Evangélio annuntiándo spem tulit "by announcing the Gospel he brought hope"
The use of a gerund with a direct object is, however, not uncommon with the ablative, especially in later Latin. We have an example of this in one of the Mass, namely glorificándo … Dóminum "by glorifying the Lord" in the dismal:
  Ite in pace, glorificándo vita vestra Dóminum. "Go in peace, glorifying the Lord by your life."
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